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Funded Projects / details

Cofinanciado por:

República Portuguesa 

DLight: New Plastic Scintillators for Future Light-based Detectors

Code EXPL/EME-NUC/1311/2021

Beneficiary Entity

LIP - Laboratório de Instrumentação e Física Experimental de Partículas

Project summary

This project explores promising novelties on plastic scintillating materials to launch the basis for a comprehensive R&D program on the production of radiation-hard scintillators. We target opportunities on the construction of future experiments in High Energy Physics (HEP) and applications to nuclear imagiology in the healthcare field, both expected to evolve into future partnerships with the industry. Organic scintillators and wavelength-shifters (WLS) are a basis for particle/radiation detectors used in many Nuclear Physics applications. Conventionally, they consist of polymers doped with luminophores that emit ultra-violet (UV) light upon excitation by ionising radiation. WLS convert UV into visible light, more adapted to the efficiency of photodetectors. Due to low cost/weight and malleability, plastic scintillators are common in nuclear safety monitors or radiation dosimetry. In Particle and Nuclear Physics research, they are fundamental for light-based detectors at uttermost large scales. Recent developments in plastic scintillators and WLS optical materials were introduced. The industry is developing new low-cost dosimeters based on PET (Polyethylene Terephthalate) and PEN (Polyethylene Naphthalate) from an initial idea of recycling water bottles, cutting production cost by 90%. One of the advantages is that PET and PEN emit bluish light without the addition of WLS dopants. While promising, these developments have not yet been fully exploited, for instance concerning the usage of PET/PEN mixtures, the combination of dopants and radiation resistance. This project consists of exploratory R&D on new scintillating materials based on PET and PEN blends aiming at selecting the material and manufacturing formulas with the best luminous signal based on optical characterisation of the produced samples. The addition of WLS dopants to the polymer mixture may be explored. To this end, we established a collaboration between LIP’s Laboratory of Optics and Scintillator Materials (LOMaC) and the Institute for Polymers and Composites (IPC) of the University of Minho. LIP members are HEP experimentalists, part of the ATLAS collaboration at CERN, and the IPC members are experts in the Science and Engineering of Polymers and Composites. The LIP team contributed to the R&D and construction of the Tile Hadronic Calorimeter of ATLAS (TileCal), which is scintillator-based, and has long-term expertise in the study of WLS/scintillating plates and optical fibres, including radiations hardness. IPC has competence in the formulation, compounding, polymer blending and modification via reactive extrusion, processing of both thermoplastic and thermosetting systems, and macromolecular, morphological and mechanical characterisation. IPC and LOMaC have unique capabilities in Portugal to carry R&D on plastic scintillators and collaborated successfully in the past in the development of high-quality scintillating tiles and a scalable production line, which was the backup solution for TileCal construction. Optical instrumentation of calorimeters is a topic of expertise at LIP and strategic investment for the laboratory. The 2020 European Strategy for Future Accelerators recommended a 100 km Future Circular Collider (FCC) to be built at CERN and the plans for the next generation experiments started. The major requirements for detector R&D are long-term operation under harsh radiation and extreme detection rates and noise environment. Light-based detectors must provide maximal light yield, more radiation hardness and faster response. Here, PET/PEN offer a priori competitive light output and a low percentage of natural radioactivity while being cheap options for detectors with a considerable material budget. The 2020 Portuguese Roadmap of Research Infrastructures inscribes a Network for Proton Therapy and Advanced Technologies for Cancer Prevention and Treatment (ProtoTera), of which LIP is a founding member and main provider of expertise in dosimetry and instrumentation for biomedical applications. Here, the low-cost nature of PET/PEN would facilitate larger tomography chambers useful in the monitoring of patients' response to radiotherapy. The project will start with the production and mechanical characterisation of small samples of PET/PEN blends at varied proportions at IPC. These will be tested at LOMaC for the scintillation properties - light output and emission/transmission spectra. Achieving this milestone, we will produce larger scintillating plates from the blends with the best scintillation properties. Then, optical characterisation follows, with measurements of light attenuation, response uniformity and scintillation pulse decay time. Moreover, one of the tasks consists of the development and construction of a coincidence spectrometer to measure the absolute light yield of the scintillators in terms of the number of emitted photons per MeV of deposited energy, the unique missing equipment in the lab needed for our project.

Support under

Reforçar a investigação, o desenvolvimento tecnológico e a inovação

Region of Intervention




Total eligible cost

€ 49,964.00

EU financial support

€ 0.00

Funding LIP

€ 49,964.00

National public financial support

€ 49.96











Versão Extensa: Este trabalho é financiado por fundos nacionais através da FCT - Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, I.P., no âmbito do projeto EXPL/EME-NUC/1311/2021

Versão Resumida: OE,FCT-Portugal, EXPL/EME-NUC/1311/2021


Production and optical characterisation of blended Polyethylene Tethraplate (PET)/Polyethylene Naphtalate (PEN) scintillator samplesArticle in international journal (with direct contribution from team)published


Materiais Plásticos CintilantesPoster presentation in national or international meeting
À Caça das PartículasOutreach seminar
ATLAS and FCC Scintillator DetectorsPoster presentation in national or international meeting
Laboratory of Optics and Scintillating MaterialsOral presentation in national or international meeting
Light output degradation of Gap/Crack scintillatorsOral presentation in collaboration meeting
Materiais Plásticos CintilantesPoster presentation in national or international meeting
New Plastic Scintillators for Future Light-based DetectorsPoster presentation in national or international meeting
Optics ageing studies at the cell levelOral presentation in collaboration meeting
Performance of the ATLAS/LHC Tile Calorimeter plastic scintillatorsOral presentation in international conference
R&D: Radiation Hardness of Plastic Scintillating Materials for Scintillator CalorimetersStudent presentation in advanced training event
Radiation damage of the optical components in Scintillator Detectors: from the ATLAS/LHC Tile Calorimeter to future experimentsStudent presentation in advanced training event
Radiation Hardness of Plastic Scintillating Material for Scintillador CalorimetersStudent presentation in advanced training event
Radiation Hardness of the TileCal Scintillators and FibersOral presentation in collaboration meeting
Tile Optics Paper PS different base materials Ageing A and C sideOral presentation in collaboration meeting


Radiation Damage of Optical Components in Scintillator Detectors: from the ATLAS/LHC Tile Calorimeter to Future Experiments
Radiation Damage of Optical Components in Scintillator Detectors: from the ATLAS/LHC Tile Calorimeter to Future Experiments
Radiation Damage of the TileCal Optics components at the High Luminosity LHC phase


Agostinho da Silva Gomes
António José Vilela Pontes
Beatriz Catarina Pinheiro Pereira
Christian Nunziante Tanga
João Gentil Mendes Saraiva
José António Colaço Gomes Covas
Luís Miguel da Silva Gurriana
Pedro Miguel Mendes Pereira
Rudnei Machado
Rui Lucas Oliveira Faria Ferreira
Rute Costa Batalha Pedro